Effects of Mondia Whitei ‘Mukombero’ on Sperm Parameters in Male Albino Rats
Infertility affects about 8 to 12% of the world’s population and, in about half of cases, men are either the single cause or contribute to the couple’s infertility. Many indigenous plants have been reported to be effective in male fertility regulation. Mondia whitei is a widely used medicinal plant across Africa for treatment of sexual dysfunction yet minimal empirical data exists to support its therapeutic value. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of Mondia whitei on sperm characteristics in male albino rats following oral administration. 36 albino male rats weighing between 200 mg - 400 mg were divided into 4 groups, each of nine rats. Group I comprised untreated controls while Groups II, III, and IV were treated with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight respectively using the aqueous extract of Mondia whitei via oral gavage. At the end of experiment, rats were humanely sacrificed using Carbon dioxide, the testes and epididymis, dissected for sperm collection. Sperm count, total motility, vitality and morphology were determined using a microscope and a neubaeurs chamber. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) -Version 20.0). Kruskal wallis test was employed in the analysis. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The median (IQR) sperm count of group I, II, III and IV at 10th day were 100.03 (100.03, 100.04) 10398 (98, 101), 96.66 (96.65, 96.68) and 100.98 (100.88, 101.47) cells/ml respectively. The difference was statistically significant (chi=8.157, p=0.043). Trend analysis indicated that within the groups, sperm count decreased significantly with increase in time (all p<0.05). The median (IQR) total sperm motility (percentage) of group I, II, III and IV at 10th day were 91 (90, 92 84 (81, 85), 86 (84, 88) and 88 (84, 89) respectively and the difference was statistically significant (chi=7.686, p=0.049). The median (IQR) sperm vitality in percentage of group I, II, III and IV at 10th day were 91 990, 91), 85 (82, 86), 87 (85, 89) and 89 (86, 90) respectively. The difference was statistically significant (chi=8.286, p=0.040). Though trend analysis indicated that it did not vary significantly within the groups (all p>0.05). Normal morphology percentage declined in different test groups as compared to the control groups. A statistically significant decline in normal morphology was observed within the groups with respect to time interval (p=0.027). Trend analysis indicated that within the groups, normal morphology decreased significantly with time (all p<0.05) while abnormal head morphology and tail increased with time p=0.05. This study concludes that Mondia whitei may alter male fertility by affecting sperm quality; it causes a decline in sperm count, morphology, motility and vitality. This shows that M. whitei might be cytotoxic and can result in hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia.
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