Perception and Adoption of Famers to Soil and Water Conservation Practices in Upper Turkwel Watershed in Kenya

A. K. Toromo, E. K. Ucakuwun, E. C. Kipkorir

Abstract


This study was carried out in Kapenguria area of Upper Turkwel Dam in West Pokot County with an objective of determining the factors that influence the perception and adoption of soil and water conservation practices by farmers in the area. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on household head characteristic, land tenure, crop yield trends and adoption of conservation measures among others. The study used purposeful sampling such that areas selected included both highland and lowland farmers so as to reflect the entire watershed. Data was collected from 100 farmers using face-to-face interviews spread over 12 sub locations with 50% each from highland and lowland. The data was analyzed using SPSS Version 23 and description derived from tables accordingly. Based on the study 98% of the farmers recognized that soil and water conservation had the overall effect of increasing crop production and therefore good for sustainable development. The result showed that the majority (69%) of the farmers interviewed had used SWC structures on their farms but a few had stopped citing lack of funding and lack of technical knowhow among others. Majority of the farmers (77%) in the survey area acknowledged decreased crop production in especially the lowlands where steady decline in maize yield was observed from 2013 to 2016. The yield declined from 6.83(90kg bag of maize yield) in 2013 to 4.86 bags of maize per acre in 2016. Future conservation efforts should put in place measures to address the issues of lack of sustainability after project implementation. The study concludes that clear understanding of the benefits of SWC measures by farmers is a remedy that can assure conservation and sustainability once conservation projects were stopped. Based on the study, approaches that enhance farmer training, understanding and active involvement in soil and water conservation from project inception was necessary and not mere technical support from the development agencies if conservation sustainability was to be realized.


Keywords


Adoption, Perception, Soil and Water Conservation, Sustainability, Catchment Conservation, Soil Erosion

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bizoza, A. R. (2014). Three‐stage analysis of the adoption of soil and water conservation in the highlands of Rwanda. Land degradation & development, 25(4), 360-372.

Bolliger, A., Magid, J., Amado, T., Neto, F., Dos Santos Ribeiro, M., Calegari, A., Ralisch, R. & De Neergaard, A. (2006), Taking stock of the Brazilian ‘zero-till revolution’: A review of landmark research and farmers' practice. Advances in Agronomy, 91, 47–110.

Cerda, A. & Doerr, S. H. (2005). Influence of Vegetation Recovery on Soil Hydrology and Erodibilty Following Fire: An 11-year Investigation. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 14, 10.1071/WF05044

Duncan, A. J., Bachewe, F., Mekonnen, K., Valbuena, D., Rachier, G., Lule, D. ... & Erenstein, O. (2016). Crop residue allocation to livestock feed, soil improvement and other uses along a productivity gradient in Eastern Africa. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 228, 101-110.

Ebabu, K., Tsunekawa, A., Haregeweyn, N., Adgo, E., Meshesha, D. T., Aklog, D., ... & Yibeltal, M. (2019). Effects of land use and sustainable land management practices on runoff and soil loss in the Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia. Science of the Total Environment, 648, 1462-1475.

Erenstein, O. (2003). Smallholder conservation farming in the tropics and sub-tropics: A guide to the development and dissemination of mulching with crop residues and cover crops. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 100(1), 17-37.

Fan, J. & Zhanghao, X. (2004). Assessment of Spatial Distribution of Sensitivity of Soil Erosion in Tibet. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 14(1), 41-46.

Gebreegziabher, Z. (2007). Household fuel consumption and resource use in rural-urban Ethiopia. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Wageningen University.

Giller, K. E., Witter, E., Corbeels, M. & Tittnel, P. (2009). Conservation Agriculture and Small Holder Farming in Africa: The heretics view. Field Crop Resaerch,114, 34-34.

Githinji, C. M. (2013). Factors Affecting Sustainability of Community Based Projects: A Case Study of Mutomo District, Kitui County. Unpublished MBA Thesis, Kenyatta University.

Karamage, F., Shao, H., Chen, X., Ndayisaba, F., Nahayo, L., Kayiranga, A. ... & Zhang, C. (2016). Deforestation effects on soil erosion in the Lake Kivu Basin, DR Congo-Rwanda. Forests, 7(11), 281.

Kibaara, B., Ariga, J., Olwande, J. & Jayne, T. S. (2008). Trends in Kenyan agricultural productivity: 1997-2007 (No. 1093-2016-88047).

Ligonja, P. J. & Shretsha, R. P. (2015). Soil Erosion in Kondoa Eroded Area in Tanzania using USLE, GIS and Socio-Economic Approach. John Wiley.

Mekuriaw, A., Heinimann, A., Zeleke, G. & Hurni, H. (2018). Factors influencing the adoption of physical soil and water conservation practices in the Ethiopian highlands. International Soil and Water Conservation Research, 6(1), 23-30.

Meshesha, T. W. & Tripathi, S. K. (2016). Farmer’s perception on soil erosion and land degradation problems and management practices in the Beressa Watershed of Ethiopia. J. Water Resour Ocean Sci, 5(5), 64-72.

Mushir, A. & Kedru, S. (2012). Soil and water conservation management through indigenous and traditional practices in Ethiopia: A case study. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management, 5(4), 343-355.

Ndah, T. H., Schuler, J., Uthes, J. S. & Corbeels, M. (2015). Adoption Potential for Conservation Agriculture in Africa; A newly Developed Assessment Approach (QAToCA) Applied in Kenya and Tanzania. Land Degradation & Development, 26(2), 133-141.

Pravat, K., Gouri, S. B. & Ramakrishna, M. (2015). Farmers’ perceptions of soil erosion and management strategies in south Bengal in India. Euro. J. Geo. 6(2), 85-100.

Simeneh, D. W. (2015). Perception of Farmers toward Physical Soil and Water Conservation Structures in Wyebla Watershed, Northwest Eth. Acad. J. Plant Sci. 7(3), 34-40.

Tegegne, T. B. (2014). Perception of farmers on soil erosion and conservation practices in Dejen District, Ethiopia. Int. J. Environ. Prot. Policy, 2(6), 224-229.

Tenaw, S., Islam, K. Z. & Parviainen, T. (2009). Effects of land tenure and property rights on agricultural productivity in Ethiopia, Namibia and Bangladesh. Unublished Thesis, University of Helsinki, Helsinki.

Tesfaye, G. & Kasahun, K. H. (2015). Assessment on Farmers’ Practices on Soil Erosion Control and Soil Fertility Improvement in Rift Valley Areas of East Shoa and West Arsi Zones of Oromia, Ethiopia”. EC Agric. 2(4), 391-400.

Yeshambel, M. (2013). Indigenous Knowledge Practices in Soil Conservation at Konso People, South western Eth. J. Agric. Environ. Sci. 2(2), 1-10.

Yihenew, G., Tadele, A., Mitiku, H. & Charles, Y. (2012). Lessons from Upstream Soil Conservation Measures to Mitigate Soil Erosion and its Impact on Upstream and Downstream Users of the Nile River. CP 19 Project workshop Proceedings.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


© 2015 School of Environmental Studies all rights reserved. Permission should be sought from the publishers before any of this work or part of it is reproduced, transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, microfilming and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system.