Efficiency of University of Eldoret Wastewater Treatment Plant, Kenya

L. Wanjohi, S. Mwasi, L. Mwamburi, J. Isaboke

Abstract


Wastewater treatment is a challenge that has afflicted man ever since he discovered that discharging pollutants into aquatic ecosystems have many detrimental ecological, environmental and health problems. Unsafe disposal of wastewater has become a serious threat to human and environment health. Release of untreated or partially treated wastewater is common especially in developing countries, due to lack of finances, infrastructure, technical and institutional capacity. This research was carried out to establish the efficiency of University of Eldoret wastewater treatment plant. Wastewater samples in the inlet and outlet of this plant were analyzed for physicochemical and bacteriological parameters, eutrophic nutrients and heavy metals using standard methods for a period of eight consecutive weeks. Eutrophic nutrients were determined using UV Vis spectrophotometer while heavy metals were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. The levels of these parameters obtained at the outlet were compared with the National Environmental Management Authority-Kenya standards for effluent disposal to the environment. The results for the influent and effluent were as follows; DO 0.44 -1.75 mg/l, 3.03-5.29 mg/l respectively, pH 6.83 - 8.30, 6.87 - 8.5 respectively, BOD 432 – 1396 mg/l, 32 – 58 mg/l respectively, COD 1204 – 2654 mg/l, 116 -156 mg/l respectively, feacal coliforms 57083 – 73367 cfu/100 ml, 28337-50043 cfu/100 ml respectively, phosphate 4.53- 4.98 mg/l, 3.0 - 4.50 mg/l respectively, nitrates 3.95 -17.03 mg/l, 1.47- 6.17 mg/l, respectively, cadmium 0.044 - 0.109 mg/l, 0.088 - 0.109 mg/l respectively, copper 0.026 - 0.728 mg/l, 0.029 - 0.741 mg/l respectively, manganese 0.485 - 0.724 mg/l, 0.556 - 1.01 mg/l, respectively, cobalt 0.016 - 0.184 mg/l, 0.006 - 0.205, respectively, nickel 0.005 - 0.170 mg/l, 0.040 - 0.208 mg/l respectively, zinc 0.242 - 0.661 mg/l, 0.207 - 0.319 mg/l respectively, iron 0.421-3.0 mg/l, 0.377 - 0.956 mg/l, respectively, lead 0.0 - 0.057 mg/l, 0.06 - 0.153 mg/l respectively, chromium 0.0 - 0.014 mg/l. BOD, COD, coliforms, lead and cadmium were not compliant to the NEMA-Kenya standards which are 30 mg/l, 50 mg/l, 30 cfu/100 ml, 0.01 mg/l and 0.01 mg/l, respectively. The wastewater treatment plant was therefore not efficient. There is need to remove the over accumulated sludge in the stabilization ponds. The routine maintenance practices should be carried out and regular monitoring of the effluent done. The wastewater treatment plant needs to be upgraded in order to handle the increased wastewater volume.

Keywords


Influent, Effluent, Wastewater, Treatment, Efficiency

Full Text:

PDF

References


APHA AW WA. (2005). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, American Public Health Association/ American Water works Association/ Water Environment Federation (21st ed.). Washington, DC: APHA AW WA.

Al-Ubaidy, H. J. & Rasheed, K. A. (2015). Phytoremediation of cadmium in river water by ceratophyllum demersum. World J Exp Biosci, 3, 14-17.

Akunga, G. N. & Kembenya, E. M. (2014). Effects of selected water quality parameters on phytoplankton abundance and diversity in river Chepkoilel, Eldoret, Kenya. International Journal of Advanced Research, 2(3), 863-871.

Ansari, A. A., Gill, S. S. & Khan, F. A. (2011). Eutrophication: Threat to aquatic ecosystems. In: Ansari A. A., Gill, S. S., Lanza, G. R., and Rast W. (Eds.), Eutrophication: Causes, consequences and control. The Netherlands: Springer, 143–170

Anu, P. R., Bijoy, N. S., Jayachandran, P. R. & Don Xavier, N. D. (2016). Toxicity effects of copper on the marine diatom, Chaetoceros calcitrans. Reg. Stud. Mar. Sci., 8, 498–504.

Dubé, & Cyr, D. G. (2013). The blood-epididymis barrier and human male fertility. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 763, 218–236.

El-Khatib, A., Hegazy, A. K. & Abo-El-Kassem A. M. (2015). Bioaccumalation potential and physiological response of aquatic macrophytes to lead pollution. Int. J. phytoremediation, 16, 29-45.

Erikson, K. M. & Ascher, M. (2019). Manganese: It’s Role in Disease and Health. In S. Astrid, F. Eva, S. Roland and C. Peggy (Guest Ed.), Essential Metals in Medicine: Therapeutic Use and Toxicity of Metal Ions in the Clinic. Metal Ions in Life Sciences. 19. Berlin: de Gruyter GmbH, 253–266.

Jagai, J. S., Li Wang, Q. S., Messier, K. P., Wade, T. J. & Hilborn, E. D. (2015). Extreme precipitation and emergency room visits for gastrointestinal illness in areas with and without combined sewer systems: An analysis of Massachusetts data, 2003-2007. Environ Health Perspect, 123, 873-879.

Kaluli, J., Githuku, C., Home, P. & Mwangi, B. (2011). Towards a national policy on wastewater reuse in Kenya. Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology, 13(1), 116-125.

Kristensen, L. J. (2015). Quantification of atmospheric lead emissions from 70 years of leaded petrol consumption in Australia. Atmospheric Environment, 111, 195–201.

Malik, O. A., Hsu, A., Johnson, L. A. & De Sherbinin, A. (2015). A global indicator of wastewater treatment to inform the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Environmental Science Policy. Elsevier Limited, 48, 172–85.

Naidoo, S. & Olaniran, A., (2013). Treated wastewater effluent as a source of microbial pollution of surface water resources. International Journal of Environmental Resources and Public Health, 11(1), 249-270.

National Toxicology Program. (2016). Report on carcinogens (14th ed). Research Triangle Park, NC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service.

Okam, M. M., Koch, T.A. & Tran, M. H. (2017). Iron supplementation, response in iron deficiency anaemia: Analysis of five trails. The American Journal of Medicine, 130(8), 991-998.

Pavithra M. & Hina K. (2016). Characterization of certain physico-chemical parameters of textile waste water. International Journal of Environmental Sciences, 5, 39-41.

Rolston A., Jennings E. & Linnane S. (2017). Water matters: An assessment of opinion on water management and community engagement in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom. PLoS ONE, 12(4), e0174957.

Sydor, A., Zamble, D. & Banci, L. (2013). Nickel Metallomics: General Themes Guiding Nickel Homeostasis. Dordrecht: Springer.

United Nations. (2017). Sustainable Development Goals Report. New York: United Nations.

Williard, N. S. & Roger, V. K. (2013). Stabilization ponds system; Operation, maintenance and management. Minnesota Pollution Control Agency 520.

WWAP (United Nations World Water Assessment Programme) (2017). The United Nations World Water Development Report 2017. Wastewater: The Untapped Resource. Paris: UNESCO.

WHO (World Health Organization) (2016). Sanitation Safety Planning: Manual for Safe Use and Disposal of Wastewater, Greywater and Excreta. Geneva: WHO.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


© 2015 School of Environmental Studies all rights reserved. Permission should be sought from the publishers before any of this work or part of it is reproduced, transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, microfilming and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system.